Monday, November 5, 2012

Immigration/Industrialization Key Terms

Jamie Johnson

A. Progressive Era/Movement -a period during the 1890s to the 1920s where the people had a main goal of purifying the government since it was a time of social Activism and political reform.

B. Muckraker -someone who writes corrupt things about the goverment for popular magazines.

C. Social Gospel- a Protestant Christian movement during the early 20th century where they focused on social justice issues.

D. Social Darwinism- a belief that was used to tell social policies due to the quote, "survival of the fittest".

E. Americanization- when an immigrant comes to the United States and becomes like a born and raised American having the same values for example.

F. Nativist/Nativism- having more interest in permanent residents than immigrants.

G. Europe (Eastern & Southern)- include the countries Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Italy, Greece, Spain, and Portugal.

H. Political Machine- a group of people who have a powerful boss that they help to campaign and help him win the election.

I. Andrew Carnegie- an industrialist who expanded the steel industry in the 1900s.

J. Horizontal/Vertical Integrationa description for the control in business over management that promotes things like profits, growth, efficiency, and monopolies.

K. Urban- affected by the population and human landmarks in regards to the areas surrounding it.

L. Upton Sinclair- A candidate for California governor that was an author who wrote up to 100 books, one of them being The Jungle.

M. Meat Inspection Act- a law that helps ensure that meat is prepared a sanitary way by preventing mislabeled meat products from being sold as is.

N. Trust/Monopoly- Companies that are not allowed by law own the entire business; Owners that do not go by the law meet with other companies to eliminate some competition and form prices.

O. Graft- Corruption in the political field that can be defined as a bribe so the politician can gain authority.

P. Hull Houses (Settlement Houses)- Important improvement institutions that were around in the late 19th century and early 20th centuries. One example is Chicago's Hull House.

Q. Jane Addams- A woman who studied the development of human society, was a pioneer settlement worker, important figure and leader of women's right to vote, and established the Hull House in Chicago.

R. Cesar Chavez- A leader of social justice, an American farm worker, co-founded with Dolores Huerta to establish the National Farm Workers Association, or the United Farm Workers.

S. Immigration Act of 1965- eliminated the quotas that restricted immigration and focused on the families of immigrants. There are many restrictions on visas to 170,000 per year, per country. 

T. Immigration- An act of moving to a country that one was not born in.

U. Alexander Graham Bell- A Scientist, inventor, and engineer that thought of new ideas and created the telephone.

V. George Eastman- A businessman, man who thought of new ideas, and founded a company for taking photos, thus making photography a new trend.

W. Thomas Edison- An inventor of many devices that influenced other devices around the world. Some examples are: phonograph, motion picture camera, and the light bulb.

X. Henry Bessemer- Engineer, inventor, and businessman from England that made the process for making steel easier.

Y. Reform- To improve or amend something that does not fit the standards.

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